The Forgotten Language of Flowers

In the early 18th century the Turkish "Secret Language of Flowers" was introduced to Europe by Lady Mary Wortley Montague, wife of the British ambassador to Constantinople. Flowers had long been a sign of romance but now lovers were able to send secret messages to each other by means of sending a posy of flowers. Each flower had a specific meaning and the order of arrangement had much to do with the intended "message". The French seem to have taken this idea to heart. In 1819 a French woman writing under the pen name of Madame Charlotte de la Tour (Louise Cortambert), wrote and published "Le Language des Fleurs" which offered seasonal floral and anecdotal advice to those wishing to send "secret" messages to each other.

The following list of flowers comes mainly from that original book but has been augmented to include some common flowers of today as some of those from yesteryear are unknown. Enjoy this glimpse into the past and keep this in mind the next time you send or receive flowers!


Links to other sites featuring "The Language of Flowers">


Abecedary: Volubility

Abatina: Fickleness

Acacia: Chaste love, Concealed love, Friendship

Acacia, Rose: Friendship

Acacia, Rose or Pink: Elegance

Acacia, Rose or White: Elegance

Acacia, White: Friendship; Ours is a Chaste Love

Acacia, Yellow: Secret love

Acalia: Temperance

Acanthus: Arts

Achillea Millefolia: War

Achimeness: Such worth is rare

Aconite (Wolfsbane): Misanthropy, Treachery

Aconite, Crowfoot: Luster

Acorn: Nordic Symbol of Life and immortality

Adonis, Flos: Painful recollections;

Adonis Vernalis: Bitter memories

African Marigold: Vulgar minded

Agnus Casus (or Castus): Coldness, life without love, Indifference;

Agrimony: Thankfulness, Gratitude

Allspice: My Heart Feels Compassion

Almond: Hope, Giddiness, Heedlessness

Almond (Common): Stupidity, Indiscretion

Almond (Flowering): Hope; I continue to hope

Almond, Laurel: Perfidy

Almond Tree: Stupidity, thoughtlessness

Aloe: Sorrow--Dejection, Superstition,
Bitterness, Grief, Religious

Alstroemeria: Strength

Althaea Frutes (Syrian Mallow): Persuasion

Althea: Consumed by love

Alyssum, Sweet: Worth beyond beauty

Amaranth: Immortality; Unfading Love

Amaranth (Globe): Immortality; Unfading love

Amaranth (Cockscomb): Foppery; With Affectation

Amaryllis: Splendid beauty, Beautiful but timid; Pride; Pastoral Poetry

Ambrosia: Love returned

American Cowslip: Divine beauty; Beauty divine

American Elm: Patriotism

American Linden: Matrimony

American Star Wort: Welcome to a stranger; Cheerfulness in old age

Amethys (or Amethyst): Admiration; My love for you is undying

Anemone: Anticipation, Expectation

Anemone, Field: Sickness, illness

Anemone, Garden: Forsaken; Withered hopes; Illness

Anemone, Windflower: Desertion; Forsaken

Anemone (Zephyr Flower): Sickness; Expectation

Angelica/Angelica Herb: You are my Inspiration

Angrec: Royalty

Apocynum (Dogbane): Inspiration, Deceit

Apple: Temptation; Let me Tempt you; Give in to Temptation

Apple Blossom: Preference; Fame speaks him great and good; I prefer you

Apple, Thorn: Deceitful charms

Apricot Flower: Doubt, distrust

Arbor vitae: Unchanging friendship; Live for me

Arbutus: Thee only do I love

Arbutus, Trailing: Welcome

Arkansas Coreopsis: Love at first sight

Arum: Ardour/Ardor; Ferocity and deceit

Ash/Ash Tree: Grandeur

Ash-leaved Trumpet Flower: Separation

Ash, Mountain: Prudence

Aspen Tree: Lamentation; Sighing

Asphodel: Regrets beyond the grave; Remembered beyond the tomb; My regrets follow you to the grave

Aster (China): Variety; Afterthought;

Aster, Large flowered: Afterthought; Love of variety;

Auricula, Scarlet: Avarice

Austurtium: Splendour

Autumn Leaves: Melancholy

Azalea: Romance; Temperance; Take Care of Yourself for Me; Chinese Symbol of Womanhood; Fragile Passion; True to the end

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Baby's Breath: Ours is an everlasting love

Bachelor's Button: Hope; Single Blessedness; Celibacy; Hope in love

Balm: A cure; Sympathy;

Balm, Gentle: Pleasantry

Balm, Mint: Pleasantry

Balm of Gilead: Healing; I am cured; Relief

Balsam: Impatience; My love for you can't wait

Balsam, Red: Touch me not; Impatient resolves

Balsam, Yellow: Impatience

Balsamine: Impatience

Barberry: Sharpness, satire; Petulance; Ill temper; Sourness of temper

Barberry Tree: Sharpness

Basil: Give me your good wishes; Best Wishes

Bay Leaf: I change but in dying; No change
till death; I change but in death

Bay (Rose) Rhododendron: Danger; Beware

Bay Tree: Glory

Bay Wreath: Reward of merit

Bearded Crepis: Protection

Beech: Prosperity; Lovers' tryst

Bee Ophrys: Error

Bee Orchis: Industry

Begonia: Deformed; Beware

Belladonna: Silence

Bell Flower: Constancy; Gratitude

Bell Flower, Pyramidal: Constancy

Bell Flower (small white): Gratitude

Bells of Ireland: Good Luck

Belvedere: I declare against you;

Belvidere, Wild (Licorice): I declare against you;

Betony: Surprise

Bilberry: Treachery

Bindweed: Humility; Night;

Bindweed, Great: Insinuation

Bindweed, Small: Humility

Birch Tree: Gracefulness; Meekness

Birdsfoot Trefoil: Revenge

Bittersweet; Nightshade: Truth

Black Bryony: Be my support

Black Poplar: Courage; Affliction;

Black Thorn: Difficulty

Bladder Tree: Frivolous amusement

Bladder-Nut Tree: Frivolous amusements

Bluebell: Constancy; Kindness; Humility

Blue Bottle: Delicacy

Blue-flowered Greek Valerian: Rupture

Borage: Bluntness; Abruptness; Rudeness

Bonus Henricus: Goodness

Borus Henricus: Goodness

Bouquet of Withered Flowers: Rejected Love

Box/Box Tree: Indifference; Constancy; Stoicism; Constancy in friendship

Bramble: Lowliness; Envy; Remorse

Branch of Currants: You please all

Branch of Thorns: Severity; Rigor

Bridal Rose: Happy love

Briers: Envy

Broken Straw: Constancy

Broom: Humility; Neatness;

Browallia Jamisonii: Could you bear poverty

Buckbean: Calm repose

Bud of White Rose: Heart ignorant of love;

Bugloss: Falsehood

Bulrush: Docility

Bundle of Reeds, with their Panicles: Music

Burdock: Importunity; Touch me not;

Buttercup: Riches; Memories of childhood; Ingratitude; Childishness

Butterfly Orchis: Gaiety

Butterfly Weed: Let me go

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Cabbage: Profit

Cacalia: Adulation

Cactus: Thou leavest me; Warmth; Our love shall endure

Calla AEthiopica: Magnificent Beauty

Calla Lilly: Feminine beauty; Delicacy;

Calycanthus: Benevolence

Calendula: Constancy

Camellia: Gratitude; Perfect; Loveliness; I shall love you always; Admiration; Gift to a Man

Camellia Japonica, Red: Unpretending excellence

Camellia Japonica, White: Perfected loveliness

Camellia, Pink: Longing for you

Camellia, Red: You're a flame in my heart

Camellia, White: You're adorable

Camomile/Chamomile: Energy in adversity

Canary Grass: Perseverance, determination

Candytuft: Indifference

Canterbury Bell: Gratitude; Constancy; Acknowledgement

Cape Jasmine: I'm too happy;

Cape Jasmine Gardenia: Transport; Ecstasy

Cardamine: Paternal error

Cardinal Flower: Distinction; Preferment

Carnation: Pure and deep love; Pride and beauty; Fascination

Carnation, Deep Red: Alas! for my poor heart

Carnation, Pink: I'll never forget you

Carnation, Purple: Capriciousness

Carnation, Red: My heart aches for you

Carnation, Solid Color: Yes

Carnation, Striped: Refusal; No; Sorry I can't be with you

Carnation, White: Sweet and Lovely; Innocence; Pure Love; Women's Good Luck Gift

Carnation, Yellow: Disdain; Rejection; You have disappointed me

Carrot Flower: Do not refuse me

Catalpa Flower: Beware of the coquette

Catchfly: Snare; Caught at last

Catchfly (Silene), Red: Youthful love

Catchfly, White: I fall a victim; Betrayed

Cattail: Peace; Prosperity

Cedar: Think of me; I live for thee; Strength

Cedar Leaf: I live for thee

Cedar of Lebanon: Incorruptible

Cedar Sprig: Constancy in love; I live for thee

Celandine: Future joy; Many Joys to come

Cereus (Creeping): Modest genius;

Cereus, Night Blooming: Transient Beauty

Centaury Delicacy

Champignon: Suspicion

Checkered Fritillary: Persecution

Cherry: A good education;

Cherry Blossom: Spiritual beauty

Cherry Tree: Good education

Cherry Tree, White: Deception

Chestnut: Do me justice

Chestnut Tree: Do me justice; Luxury;

Chickweed: I cling to thee; Rendezvous; Will you meet me?

Chickory : Frugality; Economy

China Aster: Love of variety; I will think of thee

China Aster, Double: I partake your sentiments

China Aster, Single: I will think of it, deliberation

China, Pink: Aversion

China or Indian Pink: Aversion

China Rose: Beauty always new

Chinese Chrysanthemum: Cheerfulness under adversity

Chorozema Varium: You have many lovers

Christmas Rose: Relieve my anxiety;

Chrysanthemum: You're a wonderful friend; Cheerfulness and Rest

Chrysanthemum, Red: I love

Chrysanthemum, Rose: In love

Chrysanthemum, White: Truth, veracity

Chrysanthemum, Yellow: Slighted love

Cinnamon Tree: Forgiveness of injuries;

Cinquefoil: Beloved child; A beloved daughter; Maternal affection

Cistus, or Rock Rose: Surety; Popular favour

Cistus, Gum: I shall die to-morrow

Citron: Ill-natured beauty;

Clarkia: The variety of your conversation delights me

Clematis: Artifice; Mental beauty

Clematis, Evergreen: Poverty

Clinging Woodbine: Fraternal love

Clotbur: Rudeness; Pertinacity

Clover, Four-leaved: Be mine

Clover, Purple: Providence

Clover, Red: Industry

Clover, White: I promise; Think of me

Cloves: Dignity

Clyanthus: Worldliness

Coboea: Gossip

Cockle: Vain is beauty without merit

Cockscomb Amaranth: Foppery; Affectation; Singularity

Colchium/Colchicum, or Meadow Saffron: My best days fled; My best days
are past

Coltsfoot: Justice shall be done you

Columbine: Desertion; Folly

Columbine, Purple: Resolved to win

Columbine, Red: Anxious and trembling; Great anxiety

Convolvulus: Bonds

Convolvulus, Blue (Minor): Repose; Night

Convolvulus Major: Dead hope Extinguished

Convolvulus Minor: Uncertainty

Convolvulus, Pink: Worth sustained by judicious and tender affection

Corchorus: Impatience of happiness; Impatient of absence

Corcopsis: Love at first sight

Coreopsis: Always cheerful

Coreopsis Arkansas: Love at first sight

Coriander: Hidden merit/value

Corn: Riches; Abundance

Corn, Broken: Quarrel

Corn Bottle: Delicacy

Corn Buttercup: Riches, wealth

Corn Cockle: Gentility

Corn Straw: Agreement

Cornel Tree: Duration

Cornelian Cherry Tree: Continuance; Duration

Coronella: Success crown your wishes

Coronilla: Success to you

Cowslip: Native grace; Pensiveness; Winning

Cowslip, American: Divine beauty; You are my divinity

Coxcomb: Foppery

Crab Blossom: Ill-tempered

Cranberry: Cure for heartache;

Crane's Bill: Envy

Creeping Cereus: Horror

Cress : Power; Stability, always reliable

Crocus: Cheerfulness; Abuse not

Crocus, Spring: Youthful gladness

Crocus, Saffron: Mirth

Crowfoot: Ingratitude

Crowfoot (Aconite-leaved): Lustre

Crown Imperial: Majesty; Power; Pride of

Crowsbill: Envy

Cuckoo Plant: Ardour

Cuckoo Flower: Paternal Error

Cucumber: Criticism

Cudweed, American Unceasing remembrance;

Currants: You please me; Thy frown will kill

Cuscuta: Meanness

Cyclamen: Diffidence; Resignation; Goodbye

Cypress: Death; Mourning; Despair; Mourning;

Cypress and Marigold: Despair

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Daffodil: Chivalry; Unequalled love; Regard; I send my regards; You're the only one; The is always shining when I'm with you

Dahlia: Eloquence and dignity; Forever thine

Daisy, Garden: I share your feelings; I share your sentiments

Daisy, Michaelmas: Farewell

Daisy, Party-coloured: Beauty

Daisy, Red: Beauty unknown to possessor

Daisy, Single Field: I will think of it

Daisy, White: Innocence; Loyal Love; I'll never tell; Purity

Daisy, Wild: I will think of it;

Damask Rose: Bashful love; Brilliant complexion;

Dandelion: Rustic oracle; Coquetry; Lover's Oracle; Faithfulness; Happiness

Dandelion Ball: Depart

Daphne Mezereon: I desire to please;

Daphne Odora: I would not have you otherwise;

Darnel (Ray grass): Vice;

Datura: Deceitful charms

Daylily: Coquetry

Dead Leaves: Sadness

Dew Plant: Serenade;

Dianthus: Make haste;

Diosma: Usefulness;

Dittany: Birth;

Dittany of Crete: Birth

Dittany of Crete, White: Passion;

Dittany, White: Passion;

Dock: Patience;

Dodder: Meanness; Baseness;

Dogsbane: Deceit; Falsehood;

Dogwood, Flowering: Am I indifferent to
you?; Durability; Our love will endure adversity

Double Daisy: Participation; Enjoyment;

Dragon Plant: A snare;

Dragonwort : Horror; Astonishment;

Dyplidinia Brassinoda: You are too bold;

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Ebony: Hypocrisy; Blackness;

Eglantine: I wound to heal;

Elder: Compassion; Zealousness;

Elecampane: Tears;

Elm: Dignity and grace;

Enchanter's Nightshade: Witchcraft; Sorcery;

Endine: Frugality;

Endive: Frugality;

Epigaea, Repens: Budding beauty;

Everflowering Candytuft: Indifference

Eupatorium: Delay;

Evening Primrose: Inconstancy

Evergreen: I will remember you forever

Evergreen Clematis: Poverty; Want;

Evergreen Thorn: Solace in adversity;

Everlasting: I think of thee; Never-ceasing remembrance;

Everlasting Pea: Wilt thou go with me? Lasting pleasure; Go not away;

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Fennel: Force; Strength; Worthy all praise

Fern: Fascination; Magic; Sincerity; Confidence and Shelter

Fern, Maidenhair: Sacred Bond of Love

Fever Root: Delay;

Ficoides, Ice Plant: Your looks freeze me; Addresses rejected;

Fig: Argument; Longevity, long-lived;

Fig Marigold: Idleness

Fig Tree: Prolific

Filbert: Reconciliation

Fir: Elevation; Time

Fir Tree: Elevation

Flax: I feel your kindness; I feel your benefits; Domestic Industry;

Fate; I am sensible of your kindness

Flax-leaved: Tardiness

Fleur-de-lis: Flame; I burn;

Fleur-de-Luce: Fire;

Flora's Bell: Without pretension

Flos, Adonis: Painful recollections;

Flowering Fern: Reverie;

Flowering Reed: Confide in heaven;

Flowering Rush: Confidence in Heaven

Flower-of-an-Hour: Delicate beauty

Flytrap: Deceit; Artifice

Fools' Parsley: Silliness;

Forget-me-not: True love; Do not forget; Memories

Forsythia: Anticipation

Fox Glove: I am ambitious only for you; Insincerity; A wish;

Foxtail Grass: Sporting

Francisca Latifolia: Beware of a false friend

Fraxinella: Fire

Freesia: Trust

French Honeysuckle: Rustic beauty;

French Marigold: Jealousy

French Willow: Bravery and humanity;

Fritillaria (Guinea-hen Flower): Persecution

Frog Ophrys: Disgust

Fuchsia: Humble love; The ambition of my love thus plagues itself

Fuchsia, Scarlet: Taste

Fuller's Teasel: Misanthropy

Fumitory Spleen; Hatred

Furze: Anger; Love for all seasons

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Garden Anemone: Forsaken;

Garden Chervil: Sincerity;

Garden Daisy: I partake your

Gardenia: Transport; Ecstasy; Secret Love; You're Lovely

Garden Marigold: Sacred affection; Uneasiness;

Garden Ranunculus: You are rich in attractions;

Garden Sage: Esteem;

Garland of Roses: Reward of virtue;

Garlic: Courage; Strength

Gentian: Intrinsic worth; Integrity;

Gentian, Fringed: Intrinsic worth;

Geranium, General: Comfort

Geranium, Apple: Present preference; Facility;

Geranium, Dark: Melancholy

Geranium, Ivy: Your hand for next dance; Bridal favour; I engage you for the next dance

Geranium, Lemon: Unexpected meeting

Geranium, Nutmeg: I expect a meeting; Expected meeting;

Geranium, Oak: Lady, deign to smile; A melancholy mind;

Geranium, Oak-leaf: True friendship;

Geranium, Pencilled: Ingenuity;

Geranium, Rose: Preference; I prefer you;

Geranium, Scarlet: Silliness; Comforting; Stupidity;

Geranium, Silver-leaf: Recall

Geranium, Wild: Steadfast piety;

Germander Speedwell: Facility

Gillyflower: Bonds of affection;Lasting beauty

Gillyflower, Common: Lasting Beauty;

Gillyflower, Stock: Promptness

Gladiolus : Ready armed; Preparedness; Flower of the Gladiators; Give me a break, I'm really sincere

Glory Flower: Glorious beauty; Glory;

Gloxinia: Love at First Sight

Glycine: Your friendship is agreeable to me

Goat's Rue: Reason

Gold Basket: Tranquility

Golden Rod: Encouragement; Precaution;

Gooseberry: Anticipation

Goosefoot: Goodness

Gorse (or Furze): Endearing affection; Anger; Our Friendship is enduring

Gourd: Extend; Bulk

Grammanthes: Your temper is too hasty;

Grape: Charity; Intemperance;

Grape Vine: Intemperance

Grass: Utility; Submission; Usefulness;

Great Yellow Daffodil: Chivalry

Greek Valerian: Rupture

Guelder Rose: Winter; Age; Good news

Gum Cistus: I shall die to-morrow

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Hand Flower Tree: Warning

Harebell: Grief; Retirement; Submission;

Hawkweed: Quicksightedness

Hawthorn: Hope

Hazel: Reconciliation

Hazelnut/Filbert: I would like to reconcile

Heart's Ease: Think of me;

Heart's Ease, Purple: You occupy my thoughts;

Heath: Solitude

Heather, Lavender: Admiration; Solitude

Heather, White: Protection; Wishes will Come True

Helenium: Tears

Heliotrope: I adore you; Devotion;

Heliotrope, Peruvian: I love; Devotion; Faithfulness; Infatuation, Adoration

Hellebore: Scandal; Calumny;

Helmet Flower (Monkshood): Knight-errantry

Hemlock: You will be my death;

Hemp: Fate

Henbane: Blemish; Fault; Imperfection;

Hepatica: Confidence

Hibiscus: Delicate beauty

Hoarhound: Fire

Holly: Domestic happiness; Am I forgotten?; Foresight; Defense

Holly Herb: Enchantment

Hollyhock: Fruitfulness; Fecundity; Ambition;

Hollyhock, White: Female ambition

Honesty (Lunaria): Sincerity; Honesty; Fascination;

Honey Flower: Sweet and secret love;

Honeysuckle: Spirit vision; The bond of love; Devoted love; Fidelity
Generous and devoted affection;

Honeysuckle, Coral: The colour of my fate;

Honeysuckle (French): Rustic beauty;

Honeysuckle, Monthly: I will not answer hastily; Domestic happiness;

Honeysuckle, Wild: Devoted love

Hop: Injustice

Hornbeam : Ornament

Hornbeam Tree: Ornament, a treasure

Horse-Chestnut: Luxury

Hortensia: You are cold;

House-Leek: Domestic economy; Vivacity;

Houstania: Innocence; Content;

Houstonia: Content

Hoya (Wax Plant): Sculpture

Humble Plant: Despondency; Humility;

Hundred-leaved Rose: Dignity of mind;

Hyacinth: Jealousy Constancy; Benevolence; Sports & Games; Play; Rashness; Flower Dedicated to Apollo

Hyacinth, Blue: Constancy

Hyacinth, Purple: Sorrow; I am Sorry; Please Forgive Me

Hyacinth, Red or Pink: Play

Hyacinth, White: Unobtrusive loveliness; I'll pray for you

Hyacinth, Yellow: Jealousy

Hydrangea: Heartlessness; Vain-glory; Thank you for Understanding

Hyssop: Cleanliness

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Iceland Moss: Health

Ice Plant: Your looks freeze me

Indian Cress: Resignation; Warlike trophy;

Indian Jasmine (Ipomoea): Attachment; I attach myself to you;

Indian Pink (Double): Always lovely;

Indian Plum: Privation;

Ipomaca: I attach myself to you;

Iris: I have a message for you; Fleur-de-lis, Emblem of France; Your friendship means so much to me; Faith; Hope; Wisdom and Valour; My Compliments

Iris, Common Garden: A message for

Iris, German: Flame

Iris, Yellow: Flame

Ivy: Fidelity; Marriage; Wedded Love; Friendship; Affection

Ivy Leaf: Friendship

Ivy, Sprig of, with tendrils: Assiduous to please;

Ivy Tendrils: Assiduous to please

Ivy Vine: Matrimony, marriage

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Jacob's Ladder: Come down

Japan Rose: Beauty is your only attraction;

Jasmine: Amiability; You are cheerful and graceful

Jasmine, Cape: Transport of joy;

Jasmine, Carolina: Separation

Jasmine, Indian: I attach myself to you;

Jasmine, Spanish: Sensuality

Jasmine, White: Amiability

Jasmine, Yellow: Grace and elegance

Jessamine, Cape: Transient joy

Jessamine, White: Amiability

Jessamine, Yellow : Grace; elegance

Jonquil: Sympathy; Return my affection; Desire; Affection returned; I desire a return of affection; Love Me

Judas-Tree: Betrayed; Unbelief;

Jumper: Asylum; Aid; Protection;

Juniper: Perfect loveliness; Succour; Protection; I will protect you

Justicia: The perfection of female loveliness;

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Kalmia (Mountain Laurel): Treachery

Kennedia: Intellectual beauty; Mental beauty;

Kings-cups: Desire of riches; I wish I was rich;

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Laburnum: Forsaken; Pensive Beauty;

Lady's Slipper: Win me and wear me;
Capricious beauty

Lagerstraemia, Indian: Eloquence

Lagerstroema (Cape Myrtle): Eloquence

Lantana: Rigor

Larch: Boldness`; Audacity`;

Larkspur: Fickleness`; Lightness`; Levity;

Larkspur, Pink: Lightness`; Fickleness;

Larkspur, Purple: Haughtiness

Laurel: Glory;

Laurel, American: Words, though sweet, may deceive;

Laurel, Common, in flower: Perfidy

Laurel, Ground: Perseverance

Laurel, Mountain: Glory; Victory; Ambition of a hero

Laurel-leaved Magnolia: Dignity

Laurestina/Laurestine/Laurestinus/Laurustina: I die if neglected; A

Lavatera: Sweet disposition

Lavender: Mistrust; Distrust;

Leaves (dead): Melancholy; Sadness

Lemon: Zest

Lemon Blossom: Discretion; Prudence; Fidelity in love

Lemon Verbena: Unity

Lettuce: Cold-hearted

Lichen: Dejection; Solitude;

Licorice, Wild: I declare against you;

Lilac: Do you still love me?

Lilac, Field: Humility

Lilac, Purple: First emotion of love

Lilac, White: Youthful; Innocence; Candor; Modest and Pure Emotions

Lily: Purity; modesty

Lily, Calla: Beauty

Lily, Day: Coquetry; Chinese Emblem for Mothers

Lily, Eucharis: Maiden Charms

Lily, Imperial: Majesty

Lily of the Valley: Return of happiness; Sweetness; Tears of the Virgin Mary; Humility; You've made my life complete

Lily, Orange: Hatred

Lily, Scarlet: High-bred, high-souled

Lily, Tiger: Wealth; Pride

Lily, Water: Eloquence; Sincerity; Purity of Heart

Lily, White: Majesty; Purity; Sweetness; Virginity; It's Heavenly to be with You

Lily, Yellow: Falsehood; Gaiety; I'm Walking on Air

Linden Leaf: Matrimony, marriage

Linden Sprig: Conjugal love

Linden Tree: Conjugal love

Linden or Lime Tree: Marriage; Conjugal love;

Lint: I feel my obligations;

Live Oak: Liberty

Liverwort: Confidence

Lobelia: Malevolence

Locust: Affection beyond the grave

Locust Tree: Elegance; Affection beyond the grave

Locust Tree (green): Love beyond the grave Affection beyond the grave;

London Pride: Frivolity

Lote Tree: Concord

Lotus: Forgetful of the past; Eloquence;

Lotus Flower: Estranged love; I love you still

Lotus Leaf: Recantation

Love in a Mist: You puzzle me; Perplexity;

Love-in-a-Puzzle: Embarrassment

Love Lies Bleeding: Hopeless, not heartless;

Lucerne: Life, existence

Lungwort (Pulmonaria): Thou art my life;

Lupine: Dejection; Voraciousness; Imagination;

Lychnis: Religious enthusiasm

Lythrum: Pretension

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Magnolia: Love of Nature; Nobility

Magnolia, Grandiflora: Peerless and proud;

Magnolia, Swamp: Perseverance

Maiden's Hair: Discretion

Maize: Riches;

Mallow: Good and Kind; Sweetness;

Mallow, Marsh: Beneficence

Mallow, Syrian: Consumed by love; Persuasion;

Mallow, Venetian: Delicate beauty;

Manchineal/Manchineel Tree: Falseness;

Mandrake: Horror; Rarity; Honor

Maple: Reserve

Marigold: Cruelty; Sacred Affection; Grief

Marigold, French: Jealousy

Marigold, Prophetic: Prediction; Cruelty; Grief; Jealousy

Marigold, Small Cape: Omen; Sign

Marigold and Cypress: Despair

Marjoram: Blushes

Marshmallow: Beneficence

Marvel of Peru (Four o-clock): Timidity

Mayflower: Welcome

Meadow Lychnis: Wit

Meadow Saffron: My best days are gone; Growing old

Meadow Sweet: Uselessness

Mercury: Goodness

Mesembryanthemum: Idleness

Mezereon: Desire to please; A flirt

Mignonette: Moral and mental beauty; Your qualities surpass your charms; Worth and Loveliness

Milfoil: War

Milkweed: Hope in misery

Milkvetch: Your presence softens my pain

Milkwort: Hermitage

Mimosa: Sensitiveness

Minchineel Tree: Hypocrisy

Mint: Virtue

Mistletoe: Obstacles to be overcome; I surmount all difficulties; I surmount everything; Kiss Me; Sacred Plant of India; Sacred Plant of the Druids

Mock Orange (Syringia): Counterfeit; Deceit

Monkshood: Deceit; A deadly foe is near; Treachery; Beware

Moonwort: Forgetfulness

Morning Glory: Coquetry; Affection: Vain glory

Moschatel: Weakness

Moss: Maternal love; Charity

Mossy Saxifrage: Affection

Moss Rose: Voluptuous love

Motherwort: Secret love; Concealed love

Mountain Ash: I watch over you; Prudence

Mourning Bride: Unfortunate attachment; I have lost all

Mouse Ear: Forget me not

Moving Plant: Agitation

Mudwort: Tranquility;

Mugwort: Good luck; Happiness

Mullein/Mullen: Good nature

Mushroom: Suspicion

Mush Plant: Weakness

Mustard Seed: Indifference

Myrrh: Gladness

Myrtle: Love in absence; Love; Hebrew Emblem of Marriage; With Joy

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Narcissus: Uncertainty; Egotism; Self-love; Formality; Stay as Sweet as you are

Nasturtium: Patriotism; Splendor; Conquest; Victory in Battle

Nettle: Cruelty; Slander

Night Blooming Cereus: Transient beauty

Nightshade: Dark thoughts; Bitter truth

A Nosegay: Gallantry

Nuts: Stupidity

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Oak: Hospitality; Bravery

Oak Leaves: Bravery and Humanity

Oak Sprig: Hospitality

Oak (white): Independence

Oats: The witching soul of music

Oleander: Beware; Caution

Olive: Peace

Orange: Generosity

Orange Blossoms: Your purity equals your loveliness (and vice-versa); Chastity; Innocence; Marriage and Fruitfulness

Orange flower: Chastity; Bridal festivities

Orange Tree: Generosity

Orchid: Love; You are beautiful; You posses a refined beauty

Orchic, Cattleya: Mature Charm

Orchis: Beauty

Osier: Frankness

Osmunda: I dream of thee

Ox Eye: Patience

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Palm Leaves: Victory; Success

Pansy: You occupy my thoughts; Think of me

Pansy, Purple: Heart's ease

Parsley: Entertainment; Festivity; Banquet; Lasting Pleasures

Pasque Flower: You have no claims

Passion Flower: Religious fervor; Devotion

Patience Dock: Patience

Pea: An appointed meeting

Pea, Everlasting: Wilt go with me?

Pea, Sweet: Departure; I am sorry I must leave

Peach Blossom: I am yours; You hold me captive

Pear and Pear Tree: Affection

Pennyroyal: Flee Away!

Peony: Anger; Ostentation; Shame; Bashfulness; Gay Life; Happy Marriage

Peppermint: Warmth of feeling

Periwinkle: Sweet memories

Periwinkle, Blue: Early friendship; Early attachment

Periwinkle, White: Pleasures of memory; Pleasant recollections

Persicaria: Restoration

Persimmon: Bury me amid nature's beauties

Peruvian Heliotrope: Devotion

Petunia: Am not proud; Don't despair; Resentment; Anger; Your Presence Soothes Me

Pheasant's Eye: Sorrowful memories; Remembrance

Phlox Our souls united; Unanimity; United hearts

Pigeon Berry: Indifference

Pimpernel: Rendezvous; Change; Assignation

Pine: Time; Endurance; Daring; Pity; Hope

Pine, Black: Pity

Pine, Pitch: Philosophy; Time and faith

Pine, Spruce: Hope in adversity; Farewell

Pine Tree: Courage, daring

Pineapple: Welcome; You are perfection

Pink: Pure affection; Boldness

Pink, Carnation: Woman's love

Pink, Clove: Dignity

Pink, Double-red: Pure and ardent love

Pink, Indian: Aversion

Pink, Indian, Double: Always lovely

Pink, Indian, Single: Aversion, dislike

Pink, Mountain: You are aspiring

Pink, Red: Love, ardent and sincere; Pure love

Pink, Single: Pure love

Pink, Variegated: Refusal

Pink, White: You are fair; Ingeniousness; Talent

Pink, Yellow: Disdain

Plane, or Platane: Genius

Plane Tree: Genius

Pleurisy Root (Asclopias): Heartache cure

Plum, Indian: Privation, suffering

Plum Tree: Genius; Keep your promise; Fidelity

Plum Tree, Wild: Independence

Plum, Wild: Independence

Poet's Narcissus: Egotism, self-love

Polyanthus: Confidence; Heart's mystery; Pride of riches

Polyanthus, Crimson: The heart's mystery

Polyanthus, Lilac: Confidence

Pomegranate: Foolishness; Conceit

Pomegranate, Flower: Mature elegance

Pompion, or Pumpkin: Grossness; Coarseness

Poplar, Black: Courage

Poplar, White: Time

Poppy: Eternal Sleep; Oblivion; Imagination; Consolation (Poppy is the floral sign of consolation probably because it was created by "Ceres" while in search of her daughter, Prosperpine, to assuage her grief)

Poppy, Corn: Consolation

Poppy, Red: Pleasure

Poppy, Scarlet: Fantastic extravagance

Poppy, White: Sleep of the heart; Oblivion; Sleep; My bane; My antidote; Consolation

Poppy, Yellow: Wealth; Success
Potato: Benevolence

Prickly Pear: Satire

Pride of China (Melia): Dissension

Primrose: Modest worth; Silent love; Early youth; I can't live without you

Primrose, Evening: Inconstancy

Primrose, Red: Unpatronized merit

Privet: Mildness; Prohibition

Privet, or Prim: Prohibition

Pumpkin: Coarseness, grossness

Purple Clover: Provident

Purple Scabious: Mourning

Pyrus Japonica: Fairies' fire

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Quaking-Grass: Agitation

Quamoclit: Busybody

Queen of the Meadow: Uselessness

Queen's Rocket: You are the queen of coquettes; Fashionable

Quince: Temptation

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Ragged-robin (Lychnis): Wit

Ranunculus: You are radiant with charms; I am dazzled by your charms

Ranunculus, Garden: You are radiant with charms; You are rich in

Ranunculus, Wild: Ingratitude

Raspberry: Remorse

Ray Grass: Vice

Red Bay: Memory

Red Catchfly: Youthful love

Reeds: Music, musical

Reed, Split: Indiscretion

Rest Harrow: Obstacle

Rhubarb: Advice

Rocket: Rivalry

Rose, Austrian: Thou art all that is lovely

Rose, Bridal: Happy love

Rose, Burgundy: Unconscious beauty

Rose, Cabbage: Ambassador of love

Rose, Campion: Only deserve my love

Rose, Carolina: Love is dangerous

Rose, Christmas: Tranquilize my anxiety

Rose, Cinnamon: Without pretension

Rose, Coral: Desire

Rose, Damask: Brilliant complexion; Freshness; Persian Ambassador of Love

Rose, Dark Crimson: Mourning
Rose, Dark Pink: Thankfulness

Rose, Deep Red: Bashful shame;

Rose, Dog: Pleasure and pain;

Rose, Full-blown: You are beautiful

Rose, Hibiscus: Delicate beauty
Rose, Inermis: Ingratitude

Rose, Lavender: Enchantment

Rose Leaf: I never trouble; You may hope

Rose, Maiden's Blush: If you love me, you will discover it

Rose, Musk: Capricious beauty

Rose, Orange: Fascination

Rose, Pale Peach: Modesty

Rose, Pale Pink: Grace; Joy

Rose, Pink: Perfect happiness, please believe me; Friendship
Rose, Red: I love you; Passionate Love

Rose, Red Leaved: Wishes for Prosperity

Rose, Sweetbrier: Sympathy

Rose, Tea: Always lovely; I'll remember

Rose, Thornless: Love at first sight

Rose, White: Innocence and purity, I am worthy of you, You're heavenly, Secrecy and silence

Rose; White-dried: Death is preferable to loss of virtue
Rose, White, Full: I am worthy of you

Rose, White (withered): Transient impression

Rose, White and Red together: Unity; Flower Emblem of England

Rose, Wild, Single: Simplicity

Rose, Yellow: Decrease of love; Infidelity; Unfaithfulness; Jealousy; Joy; Friendship

Rose, York and Lancaster: War

Roses, Garland of: Reward of virtue; Crown Symbol of Superior Merit

Roses, Wreath of: Reward of virtue;

Rosebay (Rhododendron): Beware; Danger

Rosebud: Confession of love; Young girl; Beauty and Joy; A Heart Innocent of Love

Rosebud, Moss: Confession of love;

Rosebud, Red: Pure and lovely; You are young and beautiful

Rosebud, White: The heart that knows not love; Girlhood; Too young to love

Roses, Bouquet of full bloom: Gratitude

Roses, Musk Cluster: Charming
Roses, Single full bloom: I love you, I still love you
Rosemary: Your presence revives me; Remembrance

Rudbeckia: Justice

Rue: Disdain

Rue, Wild: Manners

Rush: Docility

Rye Grass: Changeable disposition

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Saffron/Saffron Flower: Do not abuse; Excess is dangerous; Beware of

Saffron Crocus: Do not abuse me

Saffron, Meadow: My happiest days are past

Sage: Esteem; Domestic Virtue; We have a wonderful family/household

Sage, Garden: Esteem

Sainfoin: Agitation

Saint John's Wort (Hypericum): Animosity; Superstition; You are a prophet

Sardonia: Irony

Sardony: Irony

Satin-flower (Lunaria): Sincerity; Forgetfulness; Am I forgotten?

Saxifrage, Mossy: Affection

Scabious: Unfortunate love

Scabious, Sweet: Widowhood

Scarlet Lychnis: Sunbeaming eyes

Schinus: Religious enthusiasm

Scotch Fir: Elevation

Scotch Thistle: Retaliation

Scratch Weed: Roughness; Hardness, harshness

Sensitive Plant: Timidity; Modesty;Sensibility; Delicate feelings; Sensitiveness

Senvy: Indifference

Serpent Cactus: Horror; Surprise

Service Tree : Prudence

Shamrock: Light-heartedness

Shepherd's Purse: I offer you my all

Silver Weed: Naivete

Smilax: Loveliness
Snakesfoot: Horror; Terror

Snake's Lounge: Slander

Snapdragon: Presumption; No, never; Deception; Gracious lady

Snowball: Bound; Thoughts of heaven

Snowdrop: Hope; Consolation, A friend in adversity

Sorrel: Wit ill-timed; Parental affection

Sorrel, Wild: Wit ill-timed

Sorrel, Wood: Joy

Southernwood: Jest; Bantering;

Spanish Jasmine: Sensuality; I think you're sexy

Spearmint: Warm feelings; Warmth of sentiment

Speedwell: Female fidelity; I remain faithful

Speedwell, Germander: Facility

Speedwell, Veronica: Female fidelity;

Spider, Ophrys: Adroitness

Spider Flower: Elope with me
Spiderwort: Esteem not love; Esteem, but not love

Spiked Willow Herb: Pretension

Spindle-tree: Your charms are engraven on my heart; Your image is
engraved on my heart

Spotted Arum" Ardor, great warmth

Spring Caroline: Disappointment

Star of Bethlehem: Reconciliation;
Purity; Guidance

Starwort: Afterthought;

Starwort, American: Welcome to a stranger; Cheerfulness in old age

Stephanotis: Happiness in marriage, Desire to travel

Stock: Lasting beauty; Bonds of affection, Promptness; You'll always be beautiful to me

Stock, Ten-week: Promptness

Stonecrop: Tranquility

Stramonium, Common: Disguise

Straw: Agreement; United

Straw, Broken: Rupture of a contract; Quarrel, contention

Straw, Whole: Union, unity

Strawberry: Perfect excellence

Strawberry Tree (Arbutus): Esteem and love

Sumac/Sumach: Splendid misery

Sumach, Venice: Splendour; Intellectual excellence

Sunflower: False riches;

Sunflower, Dwarf: Your devout admirer; Adoration; I adore you

Sunflower, Fall: Pride

Sunflower, Tall: Lofty and wise thoughts; Haughtiness

Swallow-wort: Cure for heartache

Sweet Basil: Good wishes; I send sweet wishes

Sweet Briar : Poetry; Simplicity

Sweetbrier, American: Simplicity

Sweetbrier, European: I wound to heal

Sweetbrier, Yellow: Decrease of love; Let us forget

Sweet Flag: Fitness

Sweet Pea: A meeting; Delicate pleasures; Departure, Blissful Pleasure; Thank you for a lovely time; Goodbye

Sweet Sultan: Felicity; Happiness; Felicity; Widowhood

Sweet William: Artifice; Dexterity; Gallantry; Will you smile?

Sycamore: Curiosity

Syringa: Memory; Fraternal love

Syringa, Carolina: Disappointment

Syringia: Memory

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Tamarisk: Crime

Tansy: I declare against you

Tare: Vice

Teasel: Misanthropy

Tendrils of Climbing Plants: Ties

Tendrils of Plants: Ties

Thistle: Austerity; Sternness

Thistle, Common:; Austerity

Thistle, Fuller's: Misanthropy

Thistle, Scotch: Retaliation

Thorn Apple: Deceitful charms

Thorn, Black: Difficulty

Thorn, Branch of: Severity

Thorns: Severity

Thrift: Sympathy

Throatwood (Pulmonaria): Neglected beauty

Throatwort: Neglected beauty

Thyme: Activity

Tiger Flower: May pride befriend thee, For once my pride befriended me

Touch me not, Balsam: Impatience

Traveller's Joy: Safety, security

Tree of Life: Old age

Trefoil: Revenge

Tremella: Resistance

Tremella Nestoc: Opposition, resistance

Trillium Pictum: Modest beauty

Triptilion Spinosum: Be prudent

Truffle: Surprise

Trumpet Flower: Separation; Fame

Tuberose: Dangerous pleasures; Voluptuousness; Sweet voice

Tulip, General: Declaration of love; Fame; flower emblem of Holland; Perfect Lover

Tulip, Red: Declaration of love; Believe Me

Tulip Tree: Rural happiness; Fame

Tulip, Variegated: Beautiful eyes

Tulip, Yellow: Hopeless love; I am hopelessly in love; There's sunshine in your smile

Turnip: Charity

Tussilage, Sweet-scented: Justice shall be done you

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Valerian: Facility; Accommodating disposition

Valerian, Greek: Rapture

Valerian, Red: Readiness

Venice Sumach: Splendour; Intellectual excellence

Venus' Car: Fly with me

Venus's Flytrap: Caught at last

Venus's Looking-glass: Flattery

Venus' Trap: Deceit

Verbena: Sensibility; Sensitiveness

Verbena, Pink: Family union

Verbena, Purple: I weep for you; Regret

Verbena, White: Pray for me

Verinoca Speciosa: I dare not

Vernal Grass: Poor but happy

Veronica: Fidelity

Vervain: Enchantment

Vetch: I cling to thee; Shyness

Vine: Intoxication; Drunkenness

Violet, Blue: Faithfulness; Modesty, modest love; I will remain faithful; I'll always be true

Violet, Dame: Watchfulness; You are the queen of coquettes

Violet, Purple: You occupy my thoughts

Violet, Sweet: Modesty

Violet, White: Purity; Candor; Modesty; Innocence; Let's take a chance on happiness

Violet, Yellow: Modest worth; Rural happiness

Virginian Spiderwort: Momentary happiness

Virgin's Bower: Filial love

Viscaria Oculata: Will you dance with me?

Volkamenia: May you be happy

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Wall Flower: Fidelity in misfortune; Fidelity in adversity

Walnut: Intellect; Stratagem

Watcher-by-the-wayside: Never despair

Water Lily: Purity of heart

Water Melon: Bulkiness

Wax Plant: Susceptibility

Weeping Willow: Forsaken; Melancholy

Wheat: Wealth; Riches; Prosperity

Whin: Anger

White Jasmine: Amiableness

White Julienne: Despair not

White Lily: Purity and modesty

White Mullein: Good nature

White Oak: Independence

White Pink: Talent

White Poplar: Time

White Rose (dried): Death preferable to loss of innocence; Death before loss of innocence

Whortleberry: Treachery; Treason

Willow, Common: Forsaken

Willow, Creeping: Love forsaken

Willow, French: Bravery and humanity

Willow-Herb: Pretension

Willow, Water: Freedom

Willow, Weeping: Mourning

Windflower: Desertion, Forsaken

Winter Cherry: Deception

Witch Hazel: A spell is on me

Woodbine: Fraternal love

Wood Sorrel: Joy; Maternal Tenderness

Wormwood: Absence

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Xanthium: Rudeness; Pertinacity

Xeranthemum: Cheerfulness under adversity

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Yarrow: Cure for the heartache

Yew: Sadness; Sorrow; Penitence, repentance

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Zennae: Absent friends

Zephyr Flower: Expectation

Zinnia: I mourn your absence; Thoughts of absent friends

Zinnia, Magenta: Lasting Affection

Zinnia, Mixed: Thinking (or in memory) of an absent friend

Zinnia, Scarlet: Constancy

Zinnia, White: Goodness

Zinnia, Yellow: Daily Remembrance

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